# Alternating Current Assignments/DPPs

The captivating world of Physics takes an electrifying turn as we delve into the chapter “Alternating Current” (AC) for Class 12. This chapter equips you with a profound understanding of AC, the workhorse of modern power grids and numerous electronic devices. It unveils the dynamic nature of continuously changing current and voltage, crucial for success in both JEE and NEET.

## Overview : Alternating Current for Class 12, JEE and NEET

“Alternating Current” introduces the concept of AC, a current that reverses its direction and magnitude periodically:

• Direct Current (DC) vs. Alternating Current (AC): Unlike direct current (DC), which flows in a constant direction, AC continuously changes direction and magnitude over time. This cyclical variation is characterized by its frequency and amplitude.

Understanding AC Characteristics:

The chapter explores the key characteristics of AC:

• Frequency (f): Measured in Hertz (Hz), it represents the number of cycles (complete reversals of direction) the current completes per second.
• Period (T): The reciprocal of frequency (T = 1/f), it represents the time taken for one complete cycle of the AC waveform.
• Amplitude (I₀ or V₀): Represents the maximum value of the current (I₀) or voltage (V₀) during a cycle.
• Peak-to-Peak Value: The difference between the positive and negative peak values of the AC waveform.

RMS (Root Mean Square) Value: A Practical Measure

“Alternating Current” introduces the concept of root mean square (RMS) value, a crucial parameter for AC circuits:

• Equivalent DC Effect: The RMS value of an AC current or voltage represents the equivalent value of a DC current or voltage that would produce the same amount of average heating effect in a resistor.

Relationships Between AC Parameters:

The chapter establishes the connection between various AC parameters:

• Relationship between Frequency and Period: Frequency and period are inversely proportional. A higher frequency translates to a shorter period, and vice versa.
• Relationship between RMS Value and Peak Value: For a sinusoidal AC waveform, the RMS value is equal to the peak value divided by the square root of 2 (I(rms) = I₀/√2 and V(rms) = V₀/√2).

Power in AC Circuits

“Alternating Current” explores the concept of power in AC circuits, which differs from DC circuits due to the changing nature of current and voltage:

• Average Power: The average power delivered by an AC source over a complete cycle can be zero even if the source is delivering non-zero power instantaneously.
• Real Power (P): Represents the average rate of energy transfer that performs useful work in the circuit. It is calculated using the formula P = VI cos(θ), where VI is the apparent power and cos(θ) is the power factor (discussed later).

Power Factor and Its Importance

The chapter introduces the concept of power factor, a crucial parameter in AC power transmission:

• Definition: The power factor (cos(θ)) is the ratio of real power (P) to apparent power (VI). It represents the efficiency of power transmission in an AC circuit. A power factor closer to 1 indicates efficient power transfer.

Applications of Alternating Current

AC is the dominant form of electrical power used in our modern world due to several advantages:

• Efficient Transmission: AC allows for easy step-up and step-down of voltages using transformers, enabling efficient transmission of electrical power over long distances.
• Domestic Appliances: Most household appliances like refrigerators, TVs, and air conditioners operate on AC power.
• Electronic Devices: The dynamic nature of AC is crucial for the functioning of various electronic devices like transistors and integrated circuits.

## DPPs for Alternating Current

Mastering Alternating Current for JEE & NEET Success:

Conquering the intricacies of “Alternating Current” empowers you to excel in both JEE and NEET. Here’s how you can elevate your preparation:

• Focused Assignments: Solidify your understanding by tackling dedicated exercises from PRERNA EDUCATION. Focus on specific topics like AC characteristics, frequency, period, amplitude, RMS value, relationships between AC parameters, power in AC circuits, real power, power factor, and applications of AC.
• Daily Practice Problems (DPPs): Hone your problem-solving skills and build speed by tackling daily practice problems (DPPs) encompassing diverse concepts like:
• Analyzing AC waveforms and calculating frequency, period, amplitude, and RMS values.
• Applying relationships between AC parameters to solve numerical problems.
• Calculating average power and real power in AC circuits with resistive, inductive, or capacitive loads.
• Understanding the concept of power factor and its impact on power transmission.

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