Solutions Assignments/DPPs for Class 12 JEE and NEET

The captivating world of Chemistry takes a fascinating turn as we delve into the chapter “Solutions” for Class 12. This chapter delves into the formation, properties, and behavior of mixtures where one substance (solute) dissolves in another (solvent) to form a uniform liquid phase. Understanding solutions is crucial for success in both JEE and NEET, as they play a vital role in various chemical reactions and everyday phenomena. Here, you’ll embark on a journey to explore the intricate world of solutions, from concentration units to colligative properties.

Overview : Solutions for Class 12 JEE and NEET

“Solutions” introduces the concept of a true solution, a homogeneous mixture where the solute particles are evenly distributed throughout the solvent at the molecular or ionic level. This distinguishes solutions from suspensions and colloids, where the dispersed particles are larger and eventually settle out.

Understanding Concentration Units: Expressing the Essence of a Solution

The chapter explores various ways to express the concentration of a solution, which signifies the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solvent or solution:

  • Mass Percentage (% m/m): Represents the percentage by mass of solute in 100 grams of solution.
  • Volume Percentage (% v/v): Represents the percentage by volume of solute in 100 milliliters of solution.
  • Molarity (M): Represents the number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution.
  • Molality (m): Represents the number of moles of solute dissolved per kilogram of solvent.

Solubility: The Art of Dissolving

“Solutions” delves into the concept of solubility, the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given solvent at a specific temperature:

  • Factors Affecting Solubility: Several factors influence solubility, including the nature of the solute and solvent, temperature, and pressure. Generally, “like dissolves like,” meaning polar solutes dissolve well in polar solvents, and non-polar solutes dissolve well in non-polar solvents.

Colligative Properties: Unveiling the Unique Behavior of Solutions

The chapter explores colligative properties, a group of solution properties that depend solely on the concentration of solute particles, not their identity:

  • Vapor Pressure Lowering: Solutions have a lower vapor pressure compared to the pure solvent. This principle is applied in processes like osmosis, where water moves from a region of low solute concentration (high vapor pressure) to a region of high solute concentration (low vapor pressure).
  • Boiling Point Elevation: Solutions boil at a higher temperature compared to the pure solvent. This phenomenon is utilized in antifreeze solutions, which prevent the cooling system from freezing.
  • Freezing Point Depression: Solutions freeze at a lower temperature compared to the pure solvent. This principle has applications in salting roads to prevent ice formation.
  • Osmotic Pressure: When two solutions of different solute concentrations are separated by a semipermeable membrane that allows solvent molecules but not solute particles to pass through, a pressure difference arises. This pressure, called osmotic pressure, drives the movement of solvent molecules from the dilute solution (low solute concentration) to the concentrated solution (high solute concentration) until equilibrium is reached.

DPPs for Solutions

Mastering Solutions for JEE & NEET Success:

Conquering the intricacies of “Solutions” empowers you to excel in both JEE and NEET. Here’s how you can elevate your preparation:

  • Focused Assignments: Solidify your understanding by tackling dedicated exercises from PRERNA EDUCATION. Focus on specific topics like types of solutions, concentration units (%, M, m), factors affecting solubility, colligative properties (vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, osmotic pressure), and their applications.
  • Daily Practice Problems (DPPs): Hone your problem-solving skills and build speed by tackling daily practice problems (DPPs) encompassing diverse concepts like:
    • Calculating the concentration of a solution using different units (% m/m, % v/v, M, m).
    • Predicting the relative solubility of different solutes based on their polarity.
    • Applying colligative properties to explain real-world phenomena like the working principle of antifreeze or the process of osmosis in plant cells.

Beyond the Textbook: Connecting Solutions to the Everyday World

  • Beverages: The concentration of solutes (sugars, salts) in beverages influences their taste and shelf life.
  • Oceanography: Understanding the salinity (concentration of dissolved salts) of oceans is crucial for studying marine life and ocean currents.
  • Medicine: Intravenous (IV) fluids are designed to have a similar solute concentration as blood plasma to prevent disruption of cell functions.

By unraveling the mysteries of solutions, you gain a deeper appreciation for the interactions between solutes and solvents and their impact on various chemical and biological processes.

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